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Kaibigang [email protected] (KP) hat Mitglieder. Kaibigang [email protected] (KP), “​Friendship of Filipinos”, is a non-profit student organization of UCSD. Founded. Suchen Sie nach pilipin-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in der Shutterstock-Kollektion. Über uns. Kaibigang [email protected] (KP), “Friendship of Filipinos”, is a non-profit student organization of UCSD. Founded on April 6, , KP began as a social. Mabini, A: Panukala Sa Pagkakana Nang Republika Nang Pilipin | Mabini, Apolinario | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit. Was ist der Unterschied zwischen phillipines und philipine und pilipin und pinas?Du kannst auch einfach Beispielsätze geben.

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How to live in Philippine Villages- Part 2

Among the Visayans, the tumao were further distinguished from the immediate royal families, or a ruling class. Timawa — The timawa class were free commoners of Luzon and the Visayas who could own their own land and who did not have to pay a regular tribute to a maginoo, though they would, from time to time, be obliged to work on a datu's land and help in community projects and events.

They were free to change their allegiance to another datu if they married into another community or if they decided to move.

Maharlika — Members of the Tagalog warrior class known as maharlika had the same rights and responsibilities as the timawa, but in times of war they were bound to serve their datu in battle.

They had to arm themselves at their own expense, but they did get to keep the loot they took. Although they were partly related to the nobility, the maharlikas were technically less free than the timawas because they could not leave a datu's service without first hosting a large public feast and paying the datu between 6 and 18 pesos in gold — a large sum in those days.

Alipin — Commonly described as "servant" or "slave". However, this is inaccurate. The concept of the alipin relied on a complex system of obligation and repayment through labor in ancient Philippine society, rather than on the actual purchase of a person as in Western and Islamic slavery.

Members of the alipin class who owned their own houses were more accurately equivalent to medieval European serfs and commoners.

By the 15th century, Arab and Indian missionaries and traders from Malaysia and Indonesia brought Islam to the Philippines, where it both replaced and was practiced together with indigenous religions.

Before that, indigenous tribes of the Philippines practiced a mixture of Animism , Hinduism and Buddhism. They were ruled by Rajahs , Datus and Sultans , a class called Maginoo royals and defended by the Maharlika Lesser nobles, royal warriors and aristocrats.

This tradition continued among the Spanish and Portuguese traders who also intermarried with the local populations.

The Philippines was settled by the Spanish. During the period of Spanish colonialism the Philippines was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain , which was governed and controlled from Mexico City.

Early Spanish settlers were mostly explorers, soldiers, government officials and religious missionaries born in Spain and Mexico.

Most Spaniards who settled were of Andalusian ancestry but there were also Catalan , Moorish and Basque settlers. The Peninsulares governors born in Spain , mostly of Castilian ancestry, settled in the islands to govern their territory.

Most settlers married the daughters of rajahs , datus and sultans to reinforce the colonization of the islands. The arrival of the Spaniards to the Philippines attracted new waves of immigrants from China , and maritime trade flourished during the Spanish period.

The Spanish recruited thousands of Chinese migrant workers called sangleys to build the colonial infrastructure in the islands.

Many Chinese immigrants converted to Christianity, intermarried with the locals, and adopted Hispanized names and customs and became assimilated, although the children of unions between Filipinos and Chinese that became assimilated continued to be designated in official records as mestizos de sangley.

The Chinese mestizos were largely confined to the Binondo area until the 19th century. However, they eventually spread all over the islands, and became traders, landowners, and moneylenders.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of Japanese traders also migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population.

British forces occupied Manila between and as a part of the Seven Years' War ,. However, the only part of the Philippines which the British held was the Spanish colonial capital of Manila and the principal naval port of Cavite , both of which are located on Manila Bay.

The war was ended by the Treaty of Paris At the end of the war the treaty signatories were not aware that Manila had been taken by the British and was being administered as a British colony.

Consequently, no specific provision was made for the Philippines. Instead they fell under the general provision that all other lands not otherwise provided for be returned to the Spanish Empire.

The ones in Manila settled at Cainta, Rizal and the ones in the north settled in Isabela. Most were assimilated into the local population.

A total of Manila-Acapulco galleons set sail between and , during the Philippines trade with Mexico. Until , three or more ships would set sail annually from each port bringing with them the riches of the archipelago to Spain.

European criollos , mestizos and Portuguese, French and Mexican descent from the Americas, mostly from Latin America came in contact with the Filipinos.

Japanese , Indian and Cambodian Christians who fled from religious persecutions and killing fields also settled in the Philippines during the 17th until the 19th centuries.

With the inauguration of the Suez Canal in , Spain opened the Philippines for international trade. European investors such as British, Dutch, German, Portuguese, Russian, Italian and French were among those who settled in the islands as business increased.

More Spaniards arrived during the next century. Many of these European migrants intermarried with local mestizos and assimilated with the indigenous population.

Due to the strategic location of the Philippines, as many as 21 bases and , military personnel were stationed there since the United States first colonized the islands in These bases were decommissioned in after the end of the Cold War , but left behind thousands of Amerasian children.

The Pearl S. Buck International Foundation estimates there are 52, Amerasians scattered throughout the Philippines. However, according to the center of Amerasian Research, there might be as many as , Amerasians scattered across the cities of Clark , Angeles , Manila , and Olongapo.

Some of their second- or third-generation families returned to the country. Following its independence, the Philippines has seen both small and large-scale immigration into the country, mostly involving American, European, Chinese, and Japanese peoples.

More recent migrations into the country by Koreans , Persians , Brazilians , and other Southeast Asians have contributed to the enrichment of the country's ethnic landscape, language and culture.

Centuries of migration , diaspora , assimilation , and cultural diversity made most Filipinos accepting of interracial marriage and multiculturalism.

Philippine nationality law is currently based upon the principle of jus sanguinis and, therefore, descent from a parent who is a citizen of the Republic of the Philippines is the primary method of acquiring national citizenship.

Birth in the Philippines to foreign parents does not in itself confer Philippine citizenship, although RA, the Administrative Naturalization Law of , does provide a path for administrative naturalization of certain aliens born in the Philippines.

Filipinos of mixed ethnic origins are still referred to today as mestizos. However, in common parlance, mestizos are only used to refer to Filipinos mixed with Spanish or any other European ancestry.

Filipinos mixed with any other foreign ethnicities are named depending on the non-Filipino part. Indio were native Austronesians, but as a legal classification, Indio were those who embraced Roman Catholicism and Austronesians who lived in proximity to the Spanish colonies.

People who lived outside Manila , Cebu and the major Spanish posts were classified as such: 'Naturales' were Catholic Austronesians of the lowland and coastal towns.

The un-Catholic Negritos and Austronesians who lived in the towns were classified as 'salvajes' savages or 'infieles' the unfaithful.

People of pure Spanish descent living in the Philippines who were born in Spanish America were classified as 'americanos'.

Mestizos and africanos born in Spanish America living in the Philippines kept their legal classification as such, and usually came as indentured servants to the 'americanos'.

The Philippine-born children of 'americanos' were classified as 'Ins'. The Philippine-born children of mestizos and Africanos from Spanish America were classified based on patrilineal descent.

The term negrito was coined by the Spaniards based on their appearance. The word 'negrito' would be misinterpreted and used by future European scholars as an ethnoracial term in and of itself.

Both Christianized negritos who lived in the colony and un-Christianized negritos who lived in tribes outside the colony were classified as 'negritos'.

Christianized negritos who lived in Manila were not allowed to enter Intramuros and lived in areas designated for indios.

A person of mixed Negrito and Austronesian ancestry were classified based on patrilineal descent; the father's ancestry determined a child's legal classification.

If the father was 'negrito' and the mother was 'India' Austronesian , the child was classified as 'negrito'. If the father was 'indio' and the mother was 'negrita', the child was classified as 'indio'.

Persons of Negrito descent were viewed as being outside the social order as they usually lived in tribes outside the colony and resisted conversion to Christianity.

This legal system of racial classification based on patrilineal descent had no parallel anywhere in the Spanish-ruled colonies in the Americas. In general, a son born of a sangley male and an indio or mestizo de sangley female was classified as mestizo de sangley; all subsequent male descendants were mestizos de sangley regardless of whether they married an India or a mestiza de sangley.

A daughter born in such a manner, however, acquired the legal classification of her husband, i. In this way, a chino mestizo male descendant of a paternal sangley ancestor never lost his legal status as a mestizo de sangley no matter how little percentage of Chinese blood he had in his veins or how many generations had passed since his first Chinese ancestor; he was thus a mestizo de sangley in perpetuity.

If a 'filipina' married an 'indio', her legal status would change to 'India', despite being of pure Spanish descent.

The social stratification system based on class that continues to this day in the country had its beginnings in the Spanish colonial area with a discriminating caste system.

The Spanish colonizers reserved the term Filipino to refer to Spaniards born in the Philippines. The use of the term was later extended to include Spanish and Chinese mestizos , or those born of mixed Chinese-indio or Spanish-indio descent.

He went to his death saying that he was indio puro. The Spanish caste system based on race was abolished after the Philippines' independence from Spain in , and the word 'Filipino' expanded to include the entire population of the Philippines regardless of racial ancestry.

The aboriginal settlers of the Philippines were primarily Negrito groups. Negritos comprise a small minority of the nation's overall population. The majority population of Filipinos are Austronesians , a linguistic and genetic group whose historical ties lay in maritime Southeast Asia , but through ancient migrations can be found as indigenous peoples stretching as far east as the Pacific islands and as far west as Madagascar off the coast of Africa.

Other hypotheses have also been put forward based on linguistic, archeological, and genetic studies. These include an origin from mainland South China linking them to the Liangzhu culture and the Tapengkeng culture , later displaced or assimilated by the expansion of Sino-Tibetan peoples ; [98] [99] an in situ origin from the Sundaland continental shelf prior to the sea level rise at the end of the last glacial period c.

The most frequently occurring Y-DNA haplogroups among modern Filipinos are haplogroup O1a-M , which has been found with maximal frequency among the indigenous peoples of Nias , the Mentawai Islands , and Taiwan , and Haplogroup O2 -M, which is found with high frequency in many populations of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Polynesia.

In particular, the type of O2-M that is found frequently in Filipinos, O-P xM , is also found frequently in other Austronesian populations.

After the 16th century, the colonial period saw the influx of genetic influence from other populations.

DNA studies vary as to how small these lineages are. According to another genetic study done by the University of California San Francisco , they discovered that a more "modest" amount of European genetic ancestry was found among some respondents who self-identified as Filipinos.

Dental morphology provides clues to prehistoric migration patterns of the Philippines, with Sinodont dental patterns occurring in East Asia, Central Asia, North Asia, and the Americas.

Sundadont patterns occur in Southeast Asia as well as the bulk of Oceania. Published in , The Catalogo Alfabetico de Apellidos contains pages of surnames with both Spanish and indigenous roots.

Authored by Spanish Governor-General Narciso Claveria y Zaldua and Domingo Abella, the catalog was created in response to the Decree of November 21, , which gave every Filipino a surname from the book.

The decree in the Philippines was created to fulfill a Spanish colonial decree that sought to address colonial subjects who did not have a last name.

This explains why a number of Filipinos without Spanish blood share the same surnames as many Spaniards today. Austronesian languages have been spoken in the Philippines for thousands of years.

Chinese languages were also commonly spoken among the traders of the archipelago. However, with the advent of Islam, Arabic and Persian soon came to supplant Sanskrit and Tamil as holy languages.

Starting in the second half of the 16th century, Spanish was the official language of the country for the more than three centuries that the islands were governed through Mexico City on behalf of the Spanish Empire.

The variant of Spanish used was Mexican-Spanish, which also included much vocabulary of Nahuatl Aztec origin. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Spanish was the preferred language among Ilustrados and educated Filipinos in general.

Significant agreements exist, however, on the extent Spanish use beyond that. It has been argued that the Philippines were less hispanized than Canaries and America , with Spanish only being adopted by the ruling class involved in civil and judicial administration and culture.

Spanish was the language of only approximately ten percent of the Philippine population when Spanish rule ended in Chavacano is the only Spanish-based creole language in Asia.

Its vocabulary is 90 percent Spanish, and the remaining 10 percent is a mixture of predominantly Portuguese , Nahuatl Mexican Indian , Hiligaynon , and some English.

Chavacano is considered by the Instituto Cervantes to be a Spanish-based language. In a Spanish decree introduced universal education , creating free public schooling in Spanish, yet it was never implemented, even before the advent of American annexation.

Spanish continued to be the predominant lingua franca used in the islands by the elite class before and during the American colonial regime.

Following the American occupation of the Philippines and the imposition of English , the overall use of Spanish declined gradually, especially after the s.

According to Ethnologue , there are about languages spoken in the Philippines. Regional languages are designated as auxiliary official languages.

The constitution also provides that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. The letter modern Filipino alphabet, adopted in , is the official writing system.

Also, language of each ethnicity has also their own writing scripts, which are no longer used and set of alphabets.

There are also large groups of Protestant denominations, which either grew or were founded following the disestablishment of the Catholic Church during the American Colonial period.

The Iglesia ni Cristo is currently the single largest indigenous church, followed by United Church of Christ in the Philippines.

The Iglesia Filipina Independiente also known as the Aglipayan Church was an earlier development, and is a national church directly resulting from the Philippine Revolution.

The Muslims call themselves Moros , a Spanish word that refers to the Moors albeit the two groups have little cultural connection other than Islam.

Historically, ancient Filipinos held animistic beliefs that were influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism , which were brought by traders from neighbouring Asian states.

Indigenous groups like the Aeta are Animists, while Igorot and Lumad tribes still observe traditional religious practises, often alongside Christianity or Islam.

In addition, there are Lumad , who are indigenous peoples of various animistic and syncretic religions. There are currently more than 10 million Filipinos who live overseas.

Filipinos form a minority ethnic group in the Americas, Europe, Oceania, [] [] the Middle East, and other regions of the world. There are an estimated four million Americans of Filipino ancestry in the United States, and more than , American citizens in the Philippines.

Census Bureau, immigrants from the Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that sought family reunification.

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Freddie Aguilar — Anak [Official Lyric Video with Chords]

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Pixieish philippinischen Stamm Sirenen mit einer saporous poosazi wird von seinen Jemson aufgespiesst Due to the strategic location of the Philippines, as many as 21 bases and , military personnel were stationed there since the United States first colonized the islands in These bases were decommissioned in after the end of the Cold War , but left behind thousands of Amerasian children.

The Pearl S. Buck International Foundation estimates there are 52, Amerasians scattered throughout the Philippines. However, according to the center of Amerasian Research, there might be as many as , Amerasians scattered across the cities of Clark , Angeles , Manila , and Olongapo.

Some of their second- or third-generation families returned to the country. Following its independence, the Philippines has seen both small and large-scale immigration into the country, mostly involving American, European, Chinese, and Japanese peoples.

More recent migrations into the country by Koreans , Persians , Brazilians , and other Southeast Asians have contributed to the enrichment of the country's ethnic landscape, language and culture.

Centuries of migration , diaspora , assimilation , and cultural diversity made most Filipinos accepting of interracial marriage and multiculturalism.

Philippine nationality law is currently based upon the principle of jus sanguinis and, therefore, descent from a parent who is a citizen of the Republic of the Philippines is the primary method of acquiring national citizenship.

Birth in the Philippines to foreign parents does not in itself confer Philippine citizenship, although RA, the Administrative Naturalization Law of , does provide a path for administrative naturalization of certain aliens born in the Philippines.

Filipinos of mixed ethnic origins are still referred to today as mestizos. However, in common parlance, mestizos are only used to refer to Filipinos mixed with Spanish or any other European ancestry.

Filipinos mixed with any other foreign ethnicities are named depending on the non-Filipino part. Indio were native Austronesians, but as a legal classification, Indio were those who embraced Roman Catholicism and Austronesians who lived in proximity to the Spanish colonies.

People who lived outside Manila , Cebu and the major Spanish posts were classified as such: 'Naturales' were Catholic Austronesians of the lowland and coastal towns.

The un-Catholic Negritos and Austronesians who lived in the towns were classified as 'salvajes' savages or 'infieles' the unfaithful.

People of pure Spanish descent living in the Philippines who were born in Spanish America were classified as 'americanos'. Mestizos and africanos born in Spanish America living in the Philippines kept their legal classification as such, and usually came as indentured servants to the 'americanos'.

The Philippine-born children of 'americanos' were classified as 'Ins'. The Philippine-born children of mestizos and Africanos from Spanish America were classified based on patrilineal descent.

The term negrito was coined by the Spaniards based on their appearance. The word 'negrito' would be misinterpreted and used by future European scholars as an ethnoracial term in and of itself.

Both Christianized negritos who lived in the colony and un-Christianized negritos who lived in tribes outside the colony were classified as 'negritos'.

Christianized negritos who lived in Manila were not allowed to enter Intramuros and lived in areas designated for indios.

A person of mixed Negrito and Austronesian ancestry were classified based on patrilineal descent; the father's ancestry determined a child's legal classification.

If the father was 'negrito' and the mother was 'India' Austronesian , the child was classified as 'negrito'. If the father was 'indio' and the mother was 'negrita', the child was classified as 'indio'.

Persons of Negrito descent were viewed as being outside the social order as they usually lived in tribes outside the colony and resisted conversion to Christianity.

This legal system of racial classification based on patrilineal descent had no parallel anywhere in the Spanish-ruled colonies in the Americas.

In general, a son born of a sangley male and an indio or mestizo de sangley female was classified as mestizo de sangley; all subsequent male descendants were mestizos de sangley regardless of whether they married an India or a mestiza de sangley.

A daughter born in such a manner, however, acquired the legal classification of her husband, i. In this way, a chino mestizo male descendant of a paternal sangley ancestor never lost his legal status as a mestizo de sangley no matter how little percentage of Chinese blood he had in his veins or how many generations had passed since his first Chinese ancestor; he was thus a mestizo de sangley in perpetuity.

If a 'filipina' married an 'indio', her legal status would change to 'India', despite being of pure Spanish descent. The social stratification system based on class that continues to this day in the country had its beginnings in the Spanish colonial area with a discriminating caste system.

The Spanish colonizers reserved the term Filipino to refer to Spaniards born in the Philippines. The use of the term was later extended to include Spanish and Chinese mestizos , or those born of mixed Chinese-indio or Spanish-indio descent.

He went to his death saying that he was indio puro. The Spanish caste system based on race was abolished after the Philippines' independence from Spain in , and the word 'Filipino' expanded to include the entire population of the Philippines regardless of racial ancestry.

The aboriginal settlers of the Philippines were primarily Negrito groups. Negritos comprise a small minority of the nation's overall population.

The majority population of Filipinos are Austronesians , a linguistic and genetic group whose historical ties lay in maritime Southeast Asia , but through ancient migrations can be found as indigenous peoples stretching as far east as the Pacific islands and as far west as Madagascar off the coast of Africa.

Other hypotheses have also been put forward based on linguistic, archeological, and genetic studies. These include an origin from mainland South China linking them to the Liangzhu culture and the Tapengkeng culture , later displaced or assimilated by the expansion of Sino-Tibetan peoples ; [98] [99] an in situ origin from the Sundaland continental shelf prior to the sea level rise at the end of the last glacial period c.

The most frequently occurring Y-DNA haplogroups among modern Filipinos are haplogroup O1a-M , which has been found with maximal frequency among the indigenous peoples of Nias , the Mentawai Islands , and Taiwan , and Haplogroup O2 -M, which is found with high frequency in many populations of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Polynesia.

In particular, the type of O2-M that is found frequently in Filipinos, O-P xM , is also found frequently in other Austronesian populations.

After the 16th century, the colonial period saw the influx of genetic influence from other populations. DNA studies vary as to how small these lineages are.

According to another genetic study done by the University of California San Francisco , they discovered that a more "modest" amount of European genetic ancestry was found among some respondents who self-identified as Filipinos.

Dental morphology provides clues to prehistoric migration patterns of the Philippines, with Sinodont dental patterns occurring in East Asia, Central Asia, North Asia, and the Americas.

Sundadont patterns occur in Southeast Asia as well as the bulk of Oceania. Published in , The Catalogo Alfabetico de Apellidos contains pages of surnames with both Spanish and indigenous roots.

Authored by Spanish Governor-General Narciso Claveria y Zaldua and Domingo Abella, the catalog was created in response to the Decree of November 21, , which gave every Filipino a surname from the book.

The decree in the Philippines was created to fulfill a Spanish colonial decree that sought to address colonial subjects who did not have a last name.

This explains why a number of Filipinos without Spanish blood share the same surnames as many Spaniards today. Austronesian languages have been spoken in the Philippines for thousands of years.

Chinese languages were also commonly spoken among the traders of the archipelago. However, with the advent of Islam, Arabic and Persian soon came to supplant Sanskrit and Tamil as holy languages.

Starting in the second half of the 16th century, Spanish was the official language of the country for the more than three centuries that the islands were governed through Mexico City on behalf of the Spanish Empire.

The variant of Spanish used was Mexican-Spanish, which also included much vocabulary of Nahuatl Aztec origin.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Spanish was the preferred language among Ilustrados and educated Filipinos in general.

Significant agreements exist, however, on the extent Spanish use beyond that. It has been argued that the Philippines were less hispanized than Canaries and America , with Spanish only being adopted by the ruling class involved in civil and judicial administration and culture.

Spanish was the language of only approximately ten percent of the Philippine population when Spanish rule ended in Chavacano is the only Spanish-based creole language in Asia.

Its vocabulary is 90 percent Spanish, and the remaining 10 percent is a mixture of predominantly Portuguese , Nahuatl Mexican Indian , Hiligaynon , and some English.

Chavacano is considered by the Instituto Cervantes to be a Spanish-based language. In a Spanish decree introduced universal education , creating free public schooling in Spanish, yet it was never implemented, even before the advent of American annexation.

Spanish continued to be the predominant lingua franca used in the islands by the elite class before and during the American colonial regime.

Following the American occupation of the Philippines and the imposition of English , the overall use of Spanish declined gradually, especially after the s.

According to Ethnologue , there are about languages spoken in the Philippines. Regional languages are designated as auxiliary official languages.

The constitution also provides that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. The letter modern Filipino alphabet, adopted in , is the official writing system.

Also, language of each ethnicity has also their own writing scripts, which are no longer used and set of alphabets. There are also large groups of Protestant denominations, which either grew or were founded following the disestablishment of the Catholic Church during the American Colonial period.

The Iglesia ni Cristo is currently the single largest indigenous church, followed by United Church of Christ in the Philippines.

The Iglesia Filipina Independiente also known as the Aglipayan Church was an earlier development, and is a national church directly resulting from the Philippine Revolution.

The Muslims call themselves Moros , a Spanish word that refers to the Moors albeit the two groups have little cultural connection other than Islam.

Historically, ancient Filipinos held animistic beliefs that were influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism , which were brought by traders from neighbouring Asian states.

Indigenous groups like the Aeta are Animists, while Igorot and Lumad tribes still observe traditional religious practises, often alongside Christianity or Islam.

In addition, there are Lumad , who are indigenous peoples of various animistic and syncretic religions.

There are currently more than 10 million Filipinos who live overseas. Filipinos form a minority ethnic group in the Americas, Europe, Oceania, [] [] the Middle East, and other regions of the world.

There are an estimated four million Americans of Filipino ancestry in the United States, and more than , American citizens in the Philippines. Census Bureau, immigrants from the Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that sought family reunification.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Filipino people. People native to or citizens of the islands of the Philippines.

This article is about Filipinos as a nation and citizenship. For information of the population of the Philippines , see Demographics of the Philippines.

Flag of the Philippines. See also: Name of the Philippines. Main article: History of the Philippines. Tagalog maharlika , c. Tagalog maginoo , c. Visayan kadatuan , c.

Native commoner women likely Muslims in Manila at the time , c. Visayan timawa , c. Visayan pintados tattooed , c. Visayan uripon slaves , c. Binukot from Visayas , c.

Binukot from Cagayan Valley , c. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Models of migration to the Philippines , Demographics of the Philippines , and Ethnic groups in the Philippines.

Main articles: Languages of the Philippines and Philippine languages. Main article: Religion in the Philippines.

Main article: Overseas Filipinos. Philippine Statistics Authority. Asia Times. Philippine Overseas Employment Administration.

Retrieved July 22, Retrieved May 18, Retrieved December 21, February 9, Archived from the original on February 9, April 13, Archived from the original PDF on March 27, June 13, Retrieved June 14, Retrieved June 30, Retrieved July 1, National Immigration Agency, Ministry of the Interior.

February 28, Retrieved May 21, Retrieved July 21, Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. April 26, Papua New Guinea thumbs down Philippine request for additional flights.

Retrieved July 28, Retrieved October 5, Dezember ". Foreigners in Thailand " PDF. Retrieved December 25, Census Bureau of Macau.

May Census Office Ireland. Retrieved January 29, Statistisk sentralbyra Statistics Norway. Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved February 3, Ang Kalatas-Australia.

August 30, Office of the Press Secretary. Archived from the original on September 7, Retrieved October 23, Cebu Daily News. Archived from the original on February 22, Retrieved April 11, Hellenic Statistical Authority.

Archived from the original PDF on December 13, Retrieved September 9, GMA News. August 3, May 6, Retrieved December 19, Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved October 7, Finnish-Philippine Society co-operates with the migrant organizations.

Morocco World News. Iceland Review Online. Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved March 25, October Retrieved August 15, Official Gazette.

Government of the Philippines. We, the sovereign Filipino people, Ethnologue Languages of the World. Ethnologue dot Com. Retrieved April 10, Online Etymology Dictionary.

Duka Struggle for Freedom' Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. Barangay: sixteenth-century Philippine culture and society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. But when it was necessary to distinguish the indios of the Philippines from those of the Americas, they were called Filipinos.

Micheal Tarver Ph. Relacion de las islas Filippinas i de lo que in ellas an trabaiado los padres dae la Compania de Iesus.

Del p. Pedro Chirino. La primera i ultima diligencia que los Filipinos usavan en caso de enfermedad era, como avemos dicho, ofrecer algunos sacrificios a sus Anitos, o Diuatas, que eran sus dioses.

Barangay: Sixteenth-century Philippine Culture and Society. Ateneo University Press. Bonifacio's bolo. Anvil Pub. Francia Filipino Philosophy: A Critical Bibliography — De La Salle University Press e-book.

The Daily Telegraph. Wilhelm G.

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